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Speil Link. Please allow notifications to be able to download files. Block Allow. After some time, the rationality of control takes over the floodplain management; policymakers discuss flood risk and water managers build levees. When public attention diminishes, floodplains become inconspicuous until more and more stakeholders regard floodplains as profitable land. The current system of planning, law, and property rights even encourages stakeholders to act out their plural rationalities.
A permanent dynamic imbalance of different rationalities leads to a robust social construction of the floodplains which results in viable but clumsy floodplains. In the course of time, however, the patterns of activity in the floodplains lead to an increase in intensity and frequency of extreme floods, and to more vulnerable potential damages in the floodplains. Risk increases. Coping with this situation needs another kind of floodplain management. The concept aims at reducing damage by extreme floods in a catchment area by inundating less valuable areas to protect places that are more valuable.
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Leenhardt was elected DE in , roughly twenty years after becoming a lecturer, which did not help further his career. So you know, there it was. At the same time, the sociology of literature was challenged by the promoters of literary theories. The network was formed at a distance from the dominant poles in the academic field Hauchecorne , both at the domestic Bordeaux, Lille, then Vincennes and the transnational level.
In other words, this network mostly grew beyond disciplinary and national boundaries. The SSL subdivision expanded between and the mids. While collaborations between Barthes and Goldmann permanently declined, the former collaborated increasingly often with Greimas.
Table 6. Note: As class reports are unavailable for the academic years and , the corresponding columns have been left blank. There was a regularly reasserted effort to develop general theoretical approaches to linguistic, literary, and artistic objects drawing on semiology, semiotics, and semantics, which were also taught in the EPRASS. The SSL subdivision was built around similar theoretical and methodological approaches applied to varied objects, whereas the Goldmannian sociology of literature was trying to assert its place as a speciality within sociology. The members of SSL were the driving force behind an attempt to bring about a renewal of literary studies around structuralism and the critique of literary teaching in secondary and higher education.
Drawing on various appropriations of structural linguistics, Russian formalism, and psychoanalysis, the literary theories developed by this heterogeneous group progressively became specialized in the internal analysis of texts.
The evolution of the SSL subdivision suggests several observations. First, its collective initiative was a success, drawing on a relative paradigmatic consistency and on a range of fairly close theoretical, methodological, and discipline frameworks, at odds with the individual legacy characterizing the Goldmannian sociology of literature. Secondly, two disciplinary paths were pursued—linguistics and literary studies—whereas the Goldmannian sociology of literature was marginalized within the discipline of sociology.
Over the same period, a Bourdieu-inspired strand of the sociology of literature developed within sociology, increasingly pursuing a dialogue with literary studies.
This article has strived to show how rationales of disciplinary re configuration and specialization may unfold in a space initially devoid of divisions by discipline but deeply affected by the transformations of academic and intellectual spaces. The evolution of philosophy, which was not within the purview of this paper, contributed to its marginalization. The sociology of literature is an illustration of this, as it was affected by the institutionalization process of two disciplines—sociology and literary studies. The development of the sociology of literature drew on a structured and hierarchized network that was in some ways experienced and defended as a disciplinary affiliation would have been.
It was paradoxical to the extent that it legitimized and promoted new approaches and a specialization in literary subjects that did not only rely on specialists of literature. In this case, too, the journey of this very small group of intellectual producers stands to gain from being envisioned within broader trends in the academic and intellectual fields.
Full text of "Catalogus bibliothecae historiconaturalis Josephi Banks "
Likewise, their outputs give us some indication as to the crucial role played by the disciplinary reference in their domestic and international success. Among other changes …. In his view, literary criticism …. He studied philosophy and then sociology in Paris. Chicago, Chicago University Press. Barthes Roland . On Racine. English translation by Richard Howard.
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New York, Hill and Wang. Bourdieu Pierre . English translation by Peter Collier. Cambridge, Polity Press. English translation by Richard Nice. London, Sage. The Rules of Art. Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field. English translation by Susan Emmanuel. Science of Science and Reflexivity. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes. Compagnon Antoine Paris, Seuil.
English translation by Amy Jacobs. This was a period when researchers ignored the risks of withdrawal and isolation. A new set of factors has since been brought to bear: the growing distribution and consumption of travel services supported by the development of local travel promotion policies. One of the main sources for legitimation of cultural claims of singularity has proven to be local history. The provision of an historical context of place has been the work mainly of local authorities who have taken up the challenge of repairing the local fabric where there may have been one, or of providing a fabric altogether in the form of a community narrative.
One thing is certain however, by creating such cultural objects for a general public seeking recreation services, elected officials deftly prolong their term in power. By regulating memory, by recourse to historical narrative and by promoting local heritage, local authorities are placing the local administrative institution at the centre of the process of symbolic and social reproduction in public space. Beginning in the s, the relationship between history and memory has been regularly a part of both scientific and political or public debates.
The manipulation of the past for political purposes is not unique to the Mediterranean, even if the manipulation has produced disproportionate effects in this space of fragile identities.